Muslim World > Iran


Land of Ancient Persia


Iran, historically also known as Persia, is an ancient land with a rich history and culture. Iran is home to some of the world's earliest civilizations, with recorded history dating back over 3,000 years. At its peak around 500 BCE, the Persian Empire became one of the largest empires in history, spanning the area from Eastern Europe to Egypt in the south and India in the east. The arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD brought a profound transformation in Iran's cultural, social, and political life. Over the centuries, Iran has made significant contributions to Islamic civilization in areas like philosophy, architecture, literature, and science.

Introduction to Islam

Jameh Mosque, Yazd

The religion of Islam entered Iran during the Islamic conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century. This transformative period marked the end of the ancient Sassanid Empire and the beginning of Iran's Islamic era. Despite initial resistance, over time, Persians embraced Islam, and the faith became integral to Iran's national identity. Iran became a central hub of Islamic culture, with Persian scholars, artists, and scientists becoming key contributors to the Islamic Golden Age.

Islamic Culture and Heritage

Iran Map

Islam's influence on Iran's culture and heritage has been profound and enduring, shaping the country's identity, traditions, arts, and societal structures. The entry of Islam into Iran during the mid-7th century transformed the then Zoroastrian Persian Empire. This new era saw the fusion of Islamic principles with Iran's rich ancient heritage, creating a distinctive cultural synthesis that is now quintessentially Iranian.

Iran's architectural landscape is a testament to the transformative impact of Islam. The stunning mosques, madrasas, shrines, and Islamic monuments scattered across the country reveal a narrative of Islamic aesthetics merged with Persian design. Notable sites such as the Shah Mosque in Isfahan and the Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad exhibit intricate tilework, calligraphy, and design elements that reflect the unique blend of Persian art and Islamic symbolism.

Iran has a deep-seated tradition of Islamic scholarship, literature, and philosophy. The cultural capital, Isfahan, was a center of Islamic learning during the Safavid Empire, and Qom continues to be an important hub for Shia Islamic studies today. The works of illustrious Persian Muslim scholars and poets such as Rumi, Hafez, Avicenna, and Al-Farabi have had profound influences on both Islamic and global intellectual traditions.

The impact of Islam on Iran's societal fabric is profound. Islamic festivals such as Nowruz, Eid al-Fitr, and Muharram are integral to the Iranian calendar and communal life. The principles of charity, compassion, and community - cornerstones of Islamic teachings - are deeply ingrained in the social ethos of Iran.

Iranian art has been immensely shaped by Islam. From Persian miniature paintings illustrating epics and spiritual themes to the spiritual verses of Persian poetry and the intricate patterns of Persian carpets, one can see the indelible mark of Islamic culture.

Iran's Islamic identity is not monolithic - it is shaped by the diverse traditions and practices of its majority Shia and minority Sunni populations. Each sect adds to the depth and richness of the country's Islamic life.

Contemporary Iran


Today, Iran is a blend of its ancient past and aspirations for modernity. The country's governance structure, the Islamic Republic, combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with an Islamic theocracy guided by a Supreme Leader.

Education and technological progress are central to Iran's national development agenda. Iran has made substantial strides in higher education, with Iranian women particularly notable for their high enrollment rates in universities. Similarly, the country has made impressive inroads in areas like nanotechnology, biotechnology, and engineering. Iran's progress is closely tied to its Islamic ethos, as the pursuit of knowledge is greatly emphasized in Islamic teachings.

Navigating through Struggles and Aspirations

Iran Flag

Despite grappling with economic sanctions and international isolation, Iran remains dedicated to its vision of societal progress and justice, reflecting its commitment to Islamic principles. Iran's justice system is guided by the tenets of Islamic law, which emphasize equality and fairness. However, human rights issues continue to be a point of contention both domestically and internationally.

Like any nation, Iran continues to navigate the path between tradition and modernity, seeking to harness technological and educational advancements while preserving its Islamic heritage and cultural identity. Iran's future presents an opportunity for a nation deeply rooted in Islamic civilization to contribute meaningfully to the global community while addressing its challenges and fulfilling the aspirations of its people.